Gastroenterology – Current Issue

Gastroenterology

- Takeshi Tomoda, Hironari Kato, Toru Ueki, Yutaka Akimoto, Hidenori Hata, Masakuni Fujii, Ryo Harada, Tsuneyoshi Ogawa, Masaki Wato, Masahiro Takatani, Minoru Matsubara, Yoshinari Kawai, Hiroyuki Okada

Acute pancreatitis is a major adverse event of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Rectal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreases the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Little is known about the combined effects of sublingual nitrate and NSAIDs. We performed a randomized trial to assess whether the combination of NSAIDs and sublingual nitrate is more effective than NSAIDs alone in preventing PEP. [...]

- Anders Dige, Helene Tarri Hougaard, Jørgen Agnholt, Bodil Ginnerup Pedersen, Michaela Tencerova, Moustapha Kassem, Klaus Krogh, Lilli Lundby

Perianal fistulas are common in patients with Crohn´s disease (CD). Injections of cultured autologous and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells have been shown to heal CD-associated fistulas. Unfortunately, this treatment is time-consuming and expensive. We investigated the effects of injecting freshly collected autologous adipose tissue into perianal fistulas in patients with CD. [...]

- Charles N. Bernstein, Charles Burchill, Laura E. Targownik, Harminder Singh, Leslie L. Roos

We performed a population-based study to determine whether there was an increased risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in persons with critical events at birth and within 1 year of age. [...]

- Meritxell Canals, Daniel P. Poole, Nicholas A. Veldhuis, Brian L. Schmidt, Nigel W. Bunnett

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins. Within the gastrointestinal tract, GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells sense contents of the lumen, and GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells, myocytes, neurons, and immune cells participate in communication amongst cells. GPCRs control digestion, mediate digestive diseases, and coordinate repair and growth. GPCRs are the target of over one third of therapeutic drugs, including many drugs used to treat [...]

- Nicolas M. Intagliata, Stephen H. Caldwell, Armando Tripodi

Portal vein thrombosis unrelated to solid malignancy is common in patients with cirrhosis but less frequently observed in patients without cirrhosis. Prompt diagnosis and management of acute symptomatic portal vein thrombosis are essential. Failure to detect and treat thromboses can result in mesenteric ischemia, chronic cavernous transformation, and complications of portal hypertension. In patients with cirrhosis, development of portal vein thrombosis is often insidious and remains undetected u [...]

- Andrew E. Blum, Srividya Venkitachalam, Durgadevi Ravillah, Aruna K. Chelluboyina, Ann Marie Kieber-Emmons, Lakshmeswari Ravi, Adam Kresak, Apoorva K. Chandar, Sanford D. Markowitz, Marcia I. Canto, Jean S. Wang, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Yan Guo, Yu Shyr, Joseph E. Willis, Amitabh Chak, Vinay Varadan, Kishore Guda

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is resistant to standard chemoradiation treatments and few targeted therapies are available. We used large-scale tissue profiling and pharmacogenetic analyses to identify deregulated signaling pathways in EAC tissues that might be targeted to slow tumor growth or progression. [...]

- Pietro Mascagni, Sun Gyo Lim, Claudio Fiorillo, Philippe Zanne, Florent Nageotte, Lucile Zorn, Silvana Perretta, Michel de Mathelin, Jacques Marescaux, Bernard Dallemagne

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- Hadi Karimzadeh, Muthamia M. Kiraithe, Valerie Oberhardt, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Jan Bockmann, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Bettina Budeus, Daniel Hoffmann, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Adalbert Krawczyk, Jassin Rashidi-Alavijeh, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Rosario Casillas, Maria Buti, Antonina Smedile, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Andreas Heinold, Florian Emmerich, Marcus Panning, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Jörg Timm, Maike Hofmann, Bijan Raziorrouh, Robert Thimme, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) super-infection in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment options are limited, and no vaccine is available. Although HDV-specific CD8+ T cells are thought to control the virus, little is known about which HDV epitopes are targeted by virus-specific CD8+ T cells or why these cells ultimately fail to control the infection. We aimed to define how HDV escapes the CD8+ T cell-mediate [...]

- Vrishketan Sethi, Gerardo A. Vitiello, Deepak Saxena, George Miller, Vikas Dudeja

Our understanding of the microbiome and its role in immunity, cancer initiation, and cancer progression has evolved significantly over the past century. The “germ theory of cancer” was first proposed in the early 20th century, and shortly thereafter the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and later, Fusobacterium nucleatum were implicated in the development of gastric and colorectal cancers respectively. However, with the development of reliable mouse models and affordable sequencing technologies, the [...]

- Pramod K. Garg, Vijay P. Singh

Acute pancreatitis may be associated with both local and systemic complications. Systemic injury manifests in the form of organ failure which is seen in approximately 20% of all cases of acute pancreatitis and defines ‘severe acute pancreatitis’. Organ failure typically develops early in the course of acute pancreatitis, but may also develop later due to infected pancreatic necrosis induced sepsis. Organ failure is the most important determinant of outcome in acute pancreatitis. We review here t [...]

- Dominique Thabut, Christophe Bureau, Richard Layese, Valérie Bourcier, Maryam Hammouche, Carole Cagnot, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Guyader, Stanislas Pol, Dominique Larrey, Victor De Lédinghen, Denis Ouzan, Fabien Zoulim, Dominique Roulot, Albert Tran, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Odile Goria, Paul Calès, Jean-Marie Péron, Laurent Alric, Marc Bourlière, Philippe Mathurin, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Armand Abergel, Lawrence Serfaty, Ariane Mallat, Jean-Didier Grangé, Pierre Attali, Yannick Bacq, Claire Wartelle-Bladou, Thông Dao, Christophe Pilette, Christine Silvain, Christos Christidis, Dominique Capron, Brigitte Bernard-Chabert, Sophie Hillaire, Vincent Di Martino, Angela Sutton, Etienne Audureau, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Pierre Nahon, ANRS CO12 CirVir group

Management of patients with cirrhosis includes endoscopic screening and surveillance to detect esophageal varices (EV) and prevent bleeding. However, the Baveno VI guidelines recommend avoiding endoscopies for patients with liver stiffness measurements below 20 kPa and platelet counts above 150,000 (favorable Baveno VI status) and endoscopic assessment of patients with higher levels of liver stiffness and platelet counts (unfavorable Baveno VI status). We aimed to validate the Baveno VI guidelin [...]