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- David M. Morens

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2285-2287, December 2018. [...]

- Samuel U. Takvorian

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2288-2290, December 2018. [...]

- Stacie B. Dusetzina

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2290-2293, December 2018. [...]

- Britt Hultgren

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2293-2295, December 2018. [...]

- Jean-François Obadia

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2297-2306, December 2018. [...]

- Gregg W. Stone

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2307-2318, December 2018. [...]

- Anna Bill-Axelson

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2319-2329, December 2018. [...]

- Matthew J. Christopher

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2330-2341, December 2018. [...]

- Scott J. Antonia

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2342-2350, December 2018. [...]

- Susan W. Lehmann

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2351-2360, December 2018. [...]

- Marika Mende

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2361-2361, December 2018. [...]

- Luca Ampollini

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, December 2018. [...]

- Eric M. Isselbacher

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2362-2372, December 2018. [...]

- Rick A. Nishimura

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2374-2376, December 2018. [...]

- M. Elisabeth Lopes Moreira

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2377-2379, December 2018. [...]

This Viewpoint discusses recent problems with undisclosed conflicts of interest and proposes broadening disclosure requirements beyond individuals to include the institutions funding the research. [...]

This Viewpoint proposes that failure of authors to completely disclose conflicts of interest (COIs) should be considered a form of research misconduct subject to institutional review and sanctions if appropriate to establish a basic standard of consistent COI reporting. [...]

In this Viewpoint, Eric Topol and Lionel Tarrasenko, a biomedical engineer known for developing early-warning systems in critical care settings, contrast the precision monitoring of jet engines with existing monitoring systems in patients, and discuss how sensors, artificial intelligence, and other contemporary digital technologies used to monitor the maintenance needs of engines can be used to personalize treatment and improve outcomes for patients without generating false alarms. [...]

In this Viewpoint, the authors review Medicare & Medicaid Services 340B Payment program and recent rules to curtail expansion of drug discounts beyond serving poor patients. [...]

In this narrative medicine essay, a pediatrician and PhD-trained epidemiologist considers the personal significance of the statistically rare event that has happened to her and the implications for how she cares for patients and communicates risks to families confronting medical decisions. [...]

Conflict of interest affects virtually every aspect of medicine, including research, teaching, and clinical care. In May 2017, JAMA published a theme issue that included 23 articles on conflicts of interest (COIs) that represented “the multifaceted aspects and complexity of COI from numerous perspectives,” such as academia, medical education, medical practice, and research; industry payments to physicians and industry funding of and collaboration with researchers, guideline panels, professional [...]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who are undergoing hemodialysis, yet many standard cardioprotective therapies have not been effective in reducing CVD in this patient population. This reality has motivated the quest to identify dialysis-related and kidney disease–specific factors that promote CVD. [...]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic conditions contributing to morbidity and mortality. In 2016, it was the third leading cause of years of life lost and diasbility-adjusted life-years in the United States, with an estimated 164 000 deaths. Even with aggressive inpatient management, patients who are hospitalized for COPD often experience a recurrent cycle of rehospitalizations, resulting in reductions in overall health and quality of life (QOL). To help [...]

This randomized, open-label, blinded end point randomized clinical trial examined the effect of oral alfacalcidol, a vitamin D receptor activator, on cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. [...]

This randomized clinical trial compares the effects of a program combining transition and long-term self-management support vs transition support alone on 6-month hospitalizations and emergency department visits among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [...]

This study uses a series of aggregated N-of-1 trials to investigate the effectiveness of mexiletine for treatment of muscle stiffness in adult patients with nondystrophic myotonia and compares results from this series with those from a previously conducted randomized clinical trial. [...]

This nested case-control study of patients with early-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) used large-scale, deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing to identify a loss-of-function variant in TTN, the gene encoding the rare nerve protein titin, as a genetic risk factor for early AF. [...]

This JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods discusses the use, limitations, and interpretation of Bayesian hierarchical modeling, a statistical procedure that integrates information across multiple levels and uses prior information about likely treatment effects and their variability to estimate true vs random treatment effects. [...]

This Clinical Evidence Synopsis summarizes a Cochrane review of randomized trials comparing the effects of treatment of lower extremity superficial thrombophlebitis on venous thromboembolism and major bleeding. [...]

- Marianna Parlato, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Elie Abi Nader, Bernadette Begue, Nicolas Guegan, Julie Bruneau, Shérine Khater, Elizabeth Macintyre, Capucine Picard, F. Rieux-Laucat, Lionel Le Bourhis, Matthieu Allez, Olivier Goulet, Christophe Cellier, Olivier Hermine, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Georgia Malamut

[...]

- Lorenzo Fuccio, Douglas Rex, Thierry Ponchon, Leonardo Frazzoni, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Pradeep Bhandari, Evelien Dekker, Maria Pellisè, Loredana Correale, Jeanin van Hooft, Rodrigo Jover, Diogo Libanio, Franco Radaelli, Sergio Alfieri, Franco Bazzoli, Carlo Senore, Jaroslaw Regula, Thomas Seufferlein, Thomas Rösch, Prateek Sharma, Alessandro Repici, Cesare Hassan

Outcomes of endoscopic surveillance following surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) vary with the incidence and timing of CRC detection, at anastomoses or non- anastomoses in the colorectum. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of CRCs identified during surveillance colonoscopies of patients who have already undergone surgery for this cancer. [...]

- Aadra P. Bhatt, Luca Grillo, Matthew R. Redinbo

[...]

- Daniel Triner, Samantha N. Devenport, Sadeesh K. Ramakrishnan, Xiaoya Ma, Ryan A. Frieler, Joel K. Greenson, Naohiro Inohara, Gabriel Nunez, Justin A. Colacino, Richard M. Mortensen, Yatrik M. Shah

Neutrophils are among the most prevalent immune cells in the microenvironment of colon tumors, are believed to promote growth of colon tumors, and their numbers correlate with outcomes of patients with colon cancer. Trials of inhibitors of neutrophil trafficking are under way in patients with cancer, but it is not clear how neutrophils contribute to colon tumorigenesis. [...]

- V. Svolos, R. Hansen, B. Nichols, C. Quince, U.Z. Ijaz, R.T. Papadopoulou, C.A. Edwards, D. Watson, A. Alghamdi, A. Brejnrod, C. Ansalone, H. Duncan, L. Gervais, R. Tayler, J. Salmond, D. Bolognini, R. Klopfleisch, D.R. Gaya, S. Milling, R.K. Russell, K. Gerasimidis

Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the only established dietary treatment for Crohn’s disease (CD), but its acceptability is limited. There is a need for novel dietary treatments for CD. [...]

- Amit G. Singal, Caitlin C. Murphy

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- Jane Varney, Jane G. Muir, Peter R. Gibson

[...]

- Sudarshan Paramsothy, Shaun Nielsen, Michael A. Kamm, Nandan P. Deshpande, Jeremiah J. Faith, Jose C. Clemente, Ramesh Paramsothy, Alissa J. Walsh, Johan van den Bogaerde, Douglas Samuel, Rupert W.L. Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Enmoore Lin, Thomas J. Borody, Marc R. Wilkins, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Hazel M. Mitchell, Nadeem O. Kaakoush

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can induce remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In a randomized, controlled trial of FMT in patients with active UC, we aimed to identify bacterial taxonomic and functional factors associated with response to therapy. [...]

- Remi Mahmoud, Shailja C. Shah, Joren R. ten Hove, Joana Torres, Erik Mooiweer, Daniel Castaneda, Jason Glass, Jordan Elman, Akash Kumar, Jordan Axelrad, Thomas Ullman, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Bas Oldenburg, Steven H. Itzkowitz, Dutch initiative on Crohn and Colitis (ICC)

Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who have post-inflammatory polyps (PIPs) have an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). European guidelines propose that patients with PIPs receive more frequent surveillance colonoscopies, despite limited evidence of this increased risk. We aimed to define the risk of CRN and colectomy in patients with IBD and PIPs. [...]

- Yingchang Lu, Sun-Seog Kweon, Chizu Tanikawa, Wei-Hua Jia, Yong-Bing Xiang, Qiuyin Cai, Chenjie Zeng, Stephanie L. Schmit, Aesun Shin, Keitaro Matsuo, Sun Ha Jee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Jeongseon Kim, Wanqing Wen, Jiajun Shi, Xingyi Guo, Bingshan Li, Nan Wang, Ben Zhang, Xinxiang Li, Min-Ho Shin, Hong-Lan Li, Zefang Ren, Jae Hwan Oh, Isao Oze, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Keum Ji Jung, David V. Conti, Fredrick R. Schumacher, Gad Rennert, Mark A. Jenkins, Peter T. Campbell, Michael Hoffmeister, Graham Casey, Stephen B. Gruber, Jing Gao, Yu-Tang Gao, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yi-Xin Zeng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jirong Long, Koichi Matsuda, Wei Zheng

In a study of more than 60,000 East Asian descendants, 13 new genetic loci were discovered that are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. [...]

- Folasade P. May, Sharmila Anandasabapathy

[...]

- Chetan Mittal

Technical Advances in Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1627 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.369 Authors: Chetan Mittal & Mihir S Wagh [...]

- Neehar D Parikh

PRO: Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: A Useful Tool Against the Rising Tide of HCC American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1632 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.366 Author: Neehar D Parikh [...]

- Amit G Singal

CON: Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: In Need of Higher-Quality Data American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1634 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.374 Author: Amit G Singal [...]

- Koichiro Abe

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Elderly Woman After Nivolumab Administration American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1636 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.372 Authors: Koichiro Abe, Naohiro Nakamura, Akari Isono, Hikaru Toyota, Hidenori Arai & Koji Saito [...]

- Wala Ben Kridis

Lower-Extremity Vasospasm Caused by Carcinoid Syndrome American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1636 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.289 Authors: Wala Ben Kridis, Zeinab Guermazi, Héla Mnif, Nabil Toumi, Afef Khanfir, Tahia Boudawara & Mounir Frikha [...]

- Min Kyung Jeon

Fluoroscopic-Assisted, EUS-Guided Trans-Sigmoidal Pancreas Biopsy in a Patient with Surgically Altered Anatomy American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1637 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.209 Authors: Min Kyung Jeon, Hoonsub So & Do Hyun Park [...]

- Shuichi Miyamoto

Endocytoscopy of Superficial Nonampullary Duodenal Epithelial Tumor: Two Cases of Tubular Adenocarcinoma and Adenoma American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1638 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.276 Authors: Shuichi Miyamoto, Takahiko Kudo, Satoshi Abiko, Shouko Ono, Yuichi Shimizu, Yoshihiro Matsuno & Naoya Sakamoto [...]

Continuing Medical Education: November 2017: Complications of Bariatric Surgery: What You Can Expect to See in Your GI Practice American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1639 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.406 [...]

- Allison R Schulman

Complications of Bariatric Surgery: What You Can Expect to See in Your GI Practice American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1640 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.241 Authors: Allison R Schulman & Christopher C Thompson [...]

- Christine Hachem

Continuing Medical Education Questions: November 2017: Complications of Bariatric Surgery: What You Can Expect to See in Your GI Practice American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1656 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.412 Author: Christine Hachem [...]

Continuing Medical Education: November 2017: Systematic Review: Disease Activity Indices in Eosinophilic Esophagitis American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1657 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.413 [...]

- Marijn J Warners

Systematic Review: Disease Activity Indices in Eosinophilic Esophagitis American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1658 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.363 Authors: Marijn J Warners, Pieter Hindryckx, Barrett G Levesque, Claire E Parker, Lisa M Shackelton, Reena Khanna, William J Sandborn, Geert R D'Haens, Brian G Feagan, Albert J Bredenoord & Vipul Jairath [...]

- Fouad J Moawad

Continuing Medical Education Questions: November 2017: Systematic Review: Disease Activity Indices in Eosinophilic Esophagitis American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1670 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.414 Authors: Fouad J Moawad & Scripps Health La Jolla [...]

- Thomas V K Herregods

Determinants of the Association between Non-Cardiac Chest Pain and Reflux American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1671 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.288 Authors: Thomas V K Herregods, Albert J Bredenoord, Jacobus M Oors, Auke Bogte & André J P M Smout [...]

- Joel H Rubenstein

Overuse of Repeat Upper Endoscopy in the Veterans Health Administration: A Retrospective Analysis American Journal of Gastroenterology 112, 1678 (November 2017). doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.192 Authors: Joel H Rubenstein, Heiko Pohl, Megan A Adams, Eve Kerr, Robert Holleman, Sandeep Vijan, Jason A Dominitz, John M Inadomi, Dawn Provenzale, Joseph Francis & Sameer D Saini [...]

- Hamzah Abu-Sbeih, Faisal Shaukat Ali, Emmanuel Coronel, Hsiang-Chun Chen, Xuemei Wang, Phillip Lum, Gladis Shuttlesworth, Manoop S. Bhutani, Gottumukkala S. Raju, Jeffrey H. Lee, John Stroehlein, William A. Ross, Yinghong Wang

Cancer patients are prone to thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which increase the risk of bleeding and infection. We assessed the safety of endoscopic procedures in cancer patients with thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. [...]

- Robert K. Parker, Sinkeet S. Ranketi, Calvin McNelly, Matilda Ongondi, Hillary M. Topazian, Sanford M. Dawsey, Gwen A. Murphy, Russell E. White, Michael Mwachiro

[...]

- Tarek Sawas, Mouaz Alsawas, Fateh Bazerbachi, Prasad G. Iyer, Kenneth K. Wang, M. Hassan Murad, David A. Katzka

Endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) is the main treatment for dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus and intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Although the goal of EET is to achieve complete remission of intestinal metaplasia (CRIM), treatment might achieve complete remission of dysplasia (CR-D) only, without achieving CRIM. Persistent intestinal metaplasia after eradication of dysplasia might carry a higher risk for progression into advanced neoplasia. [...]

- Alberto Baptista, Diogo Turiani Hourneaux De Moura, Pichamol Jirapinyo, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux De Moura, Andres Gelrud, Michel Kahaleh, Alberto Salinas, Luis Carlos Sabagh, Andrés O. Jaramillo, Víctor Zambrano Rincones, Raul Doval, Jack William Bandel, Christopher C. Thompson

Endoscopy has evolved to become first-line therapy for the treatment of post-bariatric leaks; however, many sessions are often required with variable success rates. Due to these limitations, the use of the cardiac septal defect occluder (CSDO) has recently been reported in this population. [...]

- Kyoko Wada, Michael J. Szego

Patients with a do not resuscitate (DNR) order may go through relatively invasive procedures such as surgery or endoscopy for symptom control. Although there is a robust body of literature on revisiting DNR orders before surgical procedures, there is a scarcity of literature discussing this issue for endoscopy.1,2 We identified this gap after a clinical ethics consultation with the GI clinic team at one of the healthcare institutions affiliated with the Centre for Clinical Ethics. [...]

- Vinod Kumar, Heather Broadley, Douglas K. Rex

Excision of all visible neoplastic tissue is the goal of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs). Flat and fibrotic tissue can resist snaring. Ablation of visible polyps is associated with high recurrence rates. Avulsion is a technique to continue resection when snaring fails. [...]

- Myeongsook Seo, Eun Mi Song, Jin Woong Cho, Young Jae Lee, Bo-In Lee, Jin Su Kim, Seong Woo Jeon, Hyun Joo Jang, Dong-Hoon Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon

Delayed bleeding is an important adverse event after colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of delayed bleeding after colorectal ESD, and to develop a risk scoring model for predicting delayed bleeding. [...]

- Roy Soetikno, Jennifer M. Kolb, Tiffany Nguyen-Vu, Channa R. Jayasekera, Roel Bogie, Jessica Yu, Ravishankar Asokkumar, Silvia Sanduleanu, Tonya Kaltenbach

[...]

- Anjuli K. Luthra, Kishan Patel, Feng Li, Jeffrey R. Groce, Luis Lara, Sebastian Strobel, Amy Hosmer, Alice Hinton, Darwin L. Conwell, Somashekar G. Krishna

Acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is associated with increased rates of morbidity in pregnancy. Because there is a paucity of population-based studies evaluating ABP in pregnancy, we sought to investigate clinical outcomes in hospitalized pregnant women on a national level. [...]

- Lobke Desomer, David J. Tate, Farzan F. Bahin, Brian Chiang, Halim Awadie, Bronte Holt, Karen Byth, Michael J. Bourke

and Aims: Clinically significant bleeding (CSPEB) is the most frequent serious adverse event after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large laterally spreading colonic lesions (LSLs). There is no proven prophylactic therapy, and it remains a significant drawback of EMR. We aimed to systematically describe and evaluate the features of the post-EMR mucosal defect (PED) and their relationship to CSPEB. [...]

- R.S. Costa, J.M. Costa, A. Ferreira, R. Gonçalves, C. Rolanda

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- Mark Beveridge, Sharan Wadhwani, James Chan, Vijay Sujendran, Edmund Godfrey

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- Phillip R. Chisholm, Arpan H. Patel, Ryan J. Law, Allison R. Schulman, Arti O. Bedi, Richard S. Kwon, Erik J. Wamsteker, Michelle A. Anderson, Grace H. Elta, Shail M. Govani, Anoop Prabhu

Markedly elevated liver chemistries in patients presenting with acute calculous cholecystitis (AC) often prompt an evaluation for concomitant choledocholithiasis (CDL). However, current guidelines directing the workup for CDL fail to address this unique population. The aims of this study are to define the range of presenting lab values and imaging findings in AC, develop a model to predict the presence of concurrent CDL, and develop a management algorithm that can be easily applied on presentati [...]